A Vapour-Chamber is a planar 2-phase device that works in a similar way to a Heat Pipe. The most common Vapour Chambers are square or rectangular, but they could be manufactured in almost any shape. In the most basic configuration, a Vapour Chamber consists of a copper sealed container. Like a Heat Pipe, its wick structure is formed on the inside wall of the container and a small working fluid (commonly water) is added to soak the wick before a vacuum is pulled and the container is sealed.
The low pressure created inside the chamber by pulling the vacuum, allows the working fluid to evaporate at a temperature much lower than its normal boiling point.
When heat is applied to the Vapour Chamber, the working fluid in the wick structure near the heat source, evaporates and rushes to fill the entire volume of the chamber driven by pressure differences.
When the vapour encounters the cooler surfaces, it condenses, and gives up its latent heat of vaporization. The condensed fluid then returns to the heat source by capillary action, driven by the wick structure.
As the vaporization and condensation cycle repeats, heat is moved from the heat source and transported to the entire volume of the chamber, thus resulting in a uniform temperature distribution on its surface.
Vapour Chambers offer the following benefits:
- Reduced thermal resistance and spreading resistance.
- Provides significant weight reduction.
- Optimized form factor for space-constrained applications.
- Compatibility with various form factors.
- Reduced device temperatures.
- Enhanced heat transfer efficiency.
- Minimized thermal throttling.